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Read before the Geographical Section of the British Aasociathn f . the Adoancement rf Science, Winnipeg, August 25th, 1909. wmmm. ^nsas job ok^amtmbnt WINNIES*. !•»• THE HUDSON BAY ROUTE TO EUROPE » ROBERT ^LL I. S. O., M. D., LL. D.. D. Se. (Cntfai). F. R.S. Read before the Geographical Section of the British . .saociation for the Adoancemept of Science, Winnipeg, August 25th, 1909. FRBE PHV-VS JOS DCF^. -leNT INNI»««, 1*0» ^ v-w- 88022 THL HUDSON BAY ROUTE TO EUROPE By Raitrl BM, ISO.. M.D.. I L.D.. D.5c. (Caa/flt). F.R.S. .11 1 1 n.fc« ih« Rrlllch The question of a (eailb'e route to Europe, .rom the prairie province! ui Canada, by way of Hudion bay. la of the flrst importance to the Dominion, for aevoral reason*. Ii !■ the ihortest poMlble course from ths centre of this (roup u( provinces to Liverpool, an It follows approximately a segment of a treat circle between these points. Not only Is the total length the shortest but this route affords a grrater pro- portatlon of transportation by sea, with a shorter land haul than Miy other, Moi'e than 1,000 miles of Its water transportation is within ih» British po««'.sslonai Hudson bay hav- ing only one opening to the uceau may be conildt-red a inure clausum. The land portion Is shorter than iha by any existing lino, and It passes through an even country w I>h a very gen le slope towards the sea. The bay and strait are free from rocks and shoals and may be easily navigated by the largest ocean going vessels. The advantages of utilising this route have been discussed by publto men and the press ever since Canadi acquired the northwest territories from the Hudson's Bay company. On the other ha-^'l, a great deal of non- sense has been written and strong opinions have been glv^n against the practicability of the route, mostly bv people who had no personal or direct knowledge at the subject. The his. tory of the que<itlon and the various circumstances c.nneoted therewith, all tended to prejudice the public against it. A constant efFort was made to associate Hudson bay and strait with the Arctic regions. Although the bay stretches for a thousand r<iilos from south to north and the dl'.uncr. is still greater from the Atlantic ocean at the entrance of the stra.t to the wesi- ern shore of the bay, yet these watera do not anywhers reach the Arctic circle and the latitude of the southern extremity Is south of that of London. The writer has devoted about twenty- flve seasons to the exploration and survey of the shores of HuUson bay and the country lying to the south and west for long distances inland. liiiniiinn. wmm itv' Aus m. mk) He has passed through Hudson *tr«lt iiltie different times and haa snrreysd a great pnrt of Its northern coast. T.ie Uudnon's Bay company, which had buccesB/ully used the route in question for more than 200 years, re- garded thu buy and all the country extending thence to thr Rocky moun- tains, as their own property and were jealous of anyone Intruding on their preserves, who might some day dls- I'lte their monopoly of trads or their L .rnership of the country. Not only did thPlr officers and men and their supplies enter the country avery yaar by this route, but the ilrat milltanr force and the first permanent settler*. In what Is now Uanltoba. came in by the same route. Viewed from the Brlti-ih Islands, It seemed by far th* easiest and most direct way Into the Canadian northwest. Notwithstanding the fact that Hud- son strait and bay hive been navigat- ed with success for 240 years oy ths company, there Is no doubt that. In the old days of sailing ships, floe ire often retarded the piogress of their vessels, and much has t<e<>n mad* of this fact by the opponent* of the pro- posal to uie these waters as a high- way to Europe. But stesm navigation has changed all tii it aii4 ha» put a ne-v r rpect on the wfioi*- qtsestloi The writer was a pasaeng< in one (he company's sailing ship* in iM' .««efl a small scattered He d of lc< iirely stopped our progress In the wait Four years afterwards, when x *ias on board the steamship NS'pt«M' in about the same part of .ht Mrv^ we met a much worse field of *' mi steamed throuR-h It wltii ih loss of time. The delay In attempting t this route for commerce hn from several causes, amoi;? , the following: When It was , vocated as a modern commercla, ». the population In the interior »a «> small that there would have been -' little business to give employmer* t railway and line of steamships soon as the Hudson's Bay company t' ritories had been purchased and tli.- Canadlan Paclflc railway had beer -on structed. both at the expense of thi r>po pie of Canada, In orc.er to secure th. trad* of the northwest for the older portions of the country, It was argued THB HUPaON Bat RdUTB TO BUROPE tha* It would b« UBWiM to op«n • •hortar and mora dirwt rout* t/> Britain, which would divert tha vary tnda and traval wa wara to analouv to obtain for that railway. In rdar to •aeura thsio advanta<*a fur tha Can- adiana themielvaa. U waa tharafora, natural that tha propoaed rouia ahould bo oppon'-d by tha Hudaon'a Bay com- pany, th« Canadian Pactdo railway, tha manufacturara of aaatarn Canada and all othara, who thought their own p&r- tleular Intrroata ware menncad. Tha Canadian (ovarnmant wai alao oppoaail to It, fur the time beliif. In fact, the Hudaon bay routa had faw frianda or advocataa. Tha paopla of tha waatarn prairica, who wanted the route optn d up. wt-re nut (uRiclently nuineroua and had not tha naeaaaary political in- fluance to aacura for tha project the conalderatlon It deecrved. No rlaei ot paopla of tha eaatern parta ot tha Do- minion fait themielvaa called upon to taka any active tnteraat In the mattar. And ao thia fraat queatlon haa dracged Itaclf alone to the preaent time. In tha natural cuuria of eventa, the oponlnt ap of thIa channel (or trade, could only bacoma a living laaua whan tha rxporta bacania aufflclantly graat to forua thair way to tha aea by the ehaapaat and aaatoat routa. Whan thla ahall have baan accompllahed, a laf- proportion oC the Importa will, of courie, come tha aam* way and there will alio be a con- aldarabla paaaengar traffic. Tne peopio of Qraat Britain will aoon learn that tha incrartia In their own trade, which lAla route will afford, la a matter of much Intaraat to tham. To an outalder, the virtual obatruc- tlona placed In tha way of developing thia rout* by auoh maana aa I hav* ■Mntloned, will appear tc have b3an ahort-aighted and unpatriotic; for, lat ua auppoaa that if, by any maana be- aidaa thoaa wUch have baao raterrad to, a large population could ba rapidly poured Into that v uninhabited re- gion, would thia • . b* the very beat maana of f rnlahi vi the deairad traffic for tha Canadian Paclflc rallw^y and aala for the tarlS-.irotected Canadian B«nufa'*turaar Small aa waa tha population of Mani- toba, there waa alwaya a clamour from that quarter for aome conalderatlon of the Hudaon bay route by the govern- mant. Thla waa appeaaed by aanding out a Hudaon bay expedition on aavaral occaalona and thua time waa gained, to the evident aatlafactlon of tha govern- ment of the day The writer accompanied three ot theae expeditions, ai naturalist and geologist. On two of them he waa also medical otricer, but he waa not asked to report anything as to the qu(«tion o( the auttabillty or otherwise of tha strait and bay aa part of a commercial route between our northwest terrl- torlea and Europe. He had, however, previously written a number of paper* on thla aubieot for publication, inolud- Ing one for th* geographical aaotlon of the Brliiah Aaaoctatlon (or the Ad- vancement of aclenca, yoric meeting, and accompojiiad it with a map.* But hia bioat complete caper In thla con- n >c tlon waa one entitled "A New KovH o Europe" (from the Interior of Brlt- Isn North America), published la Montreal, aa a pamphlet. In llto. Much o( the general literature on tha .iud- »on Bay route, which haa alnca ap- fHaa^,- J'. ''■"*'* "" 'he Information conuined In this pamphlet. In connection with the expedition of m«. by tha ateamahip Neptune, th* government arranged to aand out aix ITf** partlaa to malie meteorological and other observations, for one year ?f^.- "'.'•'" «»"<«•. to be placed aa three paira on the oppoalte ahorea of Hudaon atrait. One pair waa to b* at tne entrance from the Atlantic, one P*lr on tha north and tha aouth aide, midway up, and tha third pair on each aid* of the outlet Into the bay. All uia etatlona were successfully placed wnere Intended, except the one which rtS! „? .S*"* '"'*" '•"'" «>" 'he north aide of the entrance. The weather and other clrcumstHncea prevented a Und- mg being effected In this vicinity, and .;. .V*"."".*" '"'"I ** Nachvah Inl'^t. oil the lAbrador cuaat. abo. '. arty ^m*?o,?"KV* °' "•• •''•"^ Small, but S?f?f?"^5'* *o<xl«'" nouaej, each eun- ta nlng thjree good rooms, besldaa an SuVh:,!!'."" *"*'"« ''«"» "ne to tnrea outbuildings. Were erected for each r*''""- ;!"*• dimension timber, tha aawn lumber and the doora and win- dow, were r\ken out in the ahip, but 5«J^*h *="'""« "^ "'"»» wore done fhi "* materiala had been placed on the ground. Only (rom two to three oaya were required to land the bund- le S^i"^t^'- ">« '"«1 »nd suppliaa i ' bunSIS^ "" • ^"" "^ '" •'•<'« »»«• The ofticara and men left at thaaa atatlona. kept aimllar mateorologtcal record* in uniform aata of booka. They f.£^' " "• "•*'■ ">«" sutionak from time to time, in order to maka tala- acoplo obaervatlona on the condition of th« atrait during the winter montha is« .'^"u*"!."' '*"• ■'•' y***' o' In 1M6, freah officar* and man were aant out on the ateamahip Aiart to replac* Uia flrat paniaa, who war* then brought home. At the end of tha next year the second parties also returned by the sliip and ail the atatlona were otmoilshed, except thAt on Big ialand. midway up the north ahore. It la to ba regrKted that. In neither year, were the oCdcera in ciiarge of these various stations asked to maka reports on the results of their own ob- servations during the two whole year* and aa to tha Information they obtained *PubUsheJ in tha Proeaadinga of th* Royal Oeographicai Society, Now Monthly Seriea, roL 111. lUL I THl! HL'bHO.V BAY R.ltTTB TO IBrROPf I I from Ut« Eaklmoa. Thejr wtm, m«rr- Ix TMulrcd to h«nd iii tniir bjoits of rtcordi. afUr wbich ■ g.iieial rtuu-r purpoilln* to be baitd on all of thfiu. w«» picparril by lome on* tlia for publication aach yaar. In 11(7 tha Canadian Bovernmcnt »nt oi.t an axpedttlon by tha itram- ahlp LMana to l^^ th^ langth of tha ••»»on of navlgai.^n In Hudiwn atralt bjr roaklnv occailonal vovagea from •"» '» •"•l, beclnnins a* toon aa It could ba antered and contlnultig till It might b« olo». d by Ice, aa at that time It waa kuppuaed by many that nuch a thin* aom«tlinea occurred, altbouch tbore waa no proof that It had ever nappentd. But when the Dluna reach- ed th« atralt (on the iSnd of June) th- entrance waa already quite clear r no lea In alsht. but our ahlp aoon • er warda fot antancled In Ice by fol- .j cloae to Bl( la:and. about half wt <, ■ tna north ahore, and It waa not ar talned whether or not ahe might have paaaed on Into ih.. bay by keeping the centre or the aouthern aide. The atralt waa found io be clear of Ice until the Diana left for Halifax late In the au- tumn. Th; writer wna a member of theDla.iii axpadltion and. by meana of a yacht carried out 'o Big laland on the deck of tha atcamer. he aurveyod a conalderable portion of the north ahore of the atralt which forma the aouth coaat of Bafflii Land. Agalnat tha Hudson bay route, It la urged that the aeaaon of navigation U too abort, because people erroneously auppose that the strait Is frosen over during the winter and that Churchill harbo-. on the west coast of the bay, the only natural port known to be •▼allable fo- large vess3la, la not clear of Ice for I imclent length of time each seaso: The harbor la, however, open for aL four and a half months during the mer and autumn and tbla period might be considerably lengthened by artlflctal means. From the land side, this harbor mav ba dilflcult to approach by a railway on account o( extanalve bogs or "muskegs." The writer In 1879 aur- vaysd the Churchill river, from a point » long dIsUnoa Inland, all the way to tba mouth, and also the harbor itself. I have entered t 'Is port by mating ships and I haJ the honor. In 1884 of piloting the Brat steamship that ever entered It. By prolonging the railway northward up llie oousL a salt • ..te h.u ..>•■ mny parhapa b« found which Is open durlnir a longer season than Churchill, while the total dlstanc* might be only slight- ly Increased. The name "Port Nelson" haa been re- Uined by map-makers for the mouth of Nelson river, perhaps because, on papar, it look* aa if a port should still DC tbara, but In raallty no port for sea- g ag vessels exists at this locality at tu« praaaat day. tt to raoordad that some of the^mall .e.rel. flrat sent out by the Hudson's Bay . ompany, lia years ago, we it to rii. ..mT^ lslan<L which la now Jus: above .hd tide water af the mouth of the river. The WrttJJ ban «.r.rta"',,l that thj land on thi wrjt .1,1" : d» ./. hay I, , .oioelf-ailv Iv^a't^'tZ- hi. ■/:'' 7''*'^- "PPi'-n • pir ienttryl*" "''"* "** '"* Thlrly yrarx aro. or In i,,9. i ,,. amined cartrully all the wtters in tha vicinity )f fJlliHms l.land ami took many «,iirHling.', .specially ar)und thU island itself, ,nd nowhsre 'ould I ilnd rhruut.'"-! ".'""•' '""w" "" '»•» Although the Island la now aboTs the leral of tha hlgheat tl.|e- It I. pr.,b»bi« that at iK time of RaUlaaon, the water M-a",,d i? would be twelve feet de per , king a total of twenty-two feet, whli : vould be qi. Ite au.M ,er.t for the ahlp. frequ "nfl^ Hudson bay up to the time of the ad- ventures of O-Ibervlll. In these watw. The Nelson deacends with a awlft cur- r?m '° I*'*" '•'■• '*"' »' «ha foot of Ullliitna la.ond :irirt form tt,l« .,iit,var.I the principal single discharge -f the ''"■; «'•«/ '"'" tl, ■ bay. ailo. t|"e consists of a narrow, shallow and very crooked stream, running for inllea through the great mud flat, which All the estuary, and interrupt.-,! throui"- out by many large boulders ^ Tile InniT tihli)'» Hole ni ..i- York Factory In the mouth -Ujn ^,.1-. '• ""' ''••P enough foi "aeii drawing more than eight feet. i.. gPO In'fh.'V'r »,his anchoraSe'to London in the Hudson's Bay company'a barniie deoth of wat r, and it was by the moit i« • .'^.'./'"' 'n»"»»«l to g.t out To th^ActoVy"" "' '*""'' ■»"" '"»» A very short outline should here tm fiven of the geography and th- Uad! Ing physical features of Hudson bfC •"f •'••»'»• ., The former StMy MO ?i ?'.k'". *'/"t' *"• »"• being nearly Sid w'n'i?^ °/ "•* Mediterranean of th, ?t. X h.^!"'" ^y- **'"^'' constitutes rnn.! » "" portion, measures 3S0 miles from north to south by 160 miles In breadth and bus an area more Xn BO per cent, greater than that of Laka Superior. Having these large dlStn! sion, and being situated in the heart of the contlnpiit. Hudson bay is Sie of North America, and the writer long ago, suggested that it might ba ..lore appropriately and correctly call- t? i?."''*°" **"' being, as It were, the Mediterranean of this continent It la separated from the ocean by a ven long strait and is really a mare clausum surrounded by British terri- tory. Roughly speaking, Hudson strait measures BOO miles In length by 10« miles In width. A very larno extent of country Im- mediately arcund Hudaon aea, on the east, the vouth and the west dratiu THE HUDSON BAT ROUTB TO EUROPE directly Into It, by upwards of 30 Kood- ■Ised rivers und Innumerable emaller onea. The xreat drainage system tri- butary to the Manitoba lakes torms a supplementary basin, which derives its waters from all sides and sends them to the sea by a single trunk stream, the Nelson, one of the great rivers o! the world. The Saskatchewan, which falls into Lake Winnipeg, originates west of the Rocky Mountains, and has u course of more than a thousand miles. The W'inrlpeg river, one of the largest tributaries, rises near L,ake Superior, and Hows westward into the southeastern bay of LAke Winnipeg. The Red river, the most southern afflu- ent of Lake Winnipeg, has its source south of latitude 45 degrees. This, with the tributaries from the north, or opposite direction, gives a total north and south drainage of 1,600 miles. The limits of the basin of Hudson sea, therefore, extend from the centre of the Labrador peninsula west to the Rocky mountains, a dista.nce of 2,1U0 miles, and from the source of Red river and the height of land near I^ke Superior, northward to Repulse bay, the distance being equally great. Hudson sea and strait are both easy to navigate. The former lias an aver- age aepin of Seventy talhums, deepen- ii.g to one hundred, tuwaras its outlet, 'i'ne we.st end of tne strait iias a depth of 150 fathoms and increases regularly to ;iuu as it enters ttie Atlantic, ibeie are many good harbors on both sides. The bottom in all cases Is stiff boulder clay, affording good holding ground. The land on tne southern side rises to heights of from l.UUU to 2,&00 feet, and is more precipitous than on the nortii- ern side, the western half of which is not so high as the eastern. A few light and signal stations might be erected 01. elevated points, wi.lch could inform passing ships as to the position of any Ice that might be la the strait. Both sides could be easily and effec- tively lighted at a very small expense. The country on the eastern side of Hudson sea is much higher than that on the west. From Cape Jones, on the east shore, where James bay widens Into Hudson sea, to the north, all the way to Cape DufCeriu, the east coast rises to a height of about 2,0UU feet, and in parts is quite precipitous. The west side la everywhere low, with shallow water, frun the southern extremity of James bay nearly to Cbesterlleld inlet. None of the rivers of the east shore are navigable except for light canoes between the portages, but some of those coming from the west, might be navigated during high water by steam- ers with powerful machinery. By such craft the Moose and its west branch, the Missinabi, might be ascended for 130 miles from the sea, the Albeny and the Attawapiskat, to the north of It, each for 250 miles, the Kapuskow, between these, for SO mlleai the Kkwan, Wenusk, Severn and the Hayes, together with both Its branches, the Shamattawa and Steel rivers, for about 130 miles each, and the Nelson for 70 miles above tide. There Is a rapid at the head of the tidal lagoon oi the Churchill, but a strong steamer might ascend this at high water, in which case, the river might be navi- gated for about 100 miles, or to the mouth of the Little Churchill. The Harrlcanaw river, which enters the southern extremity of James bay, might be utilized for 80 miles up from its mouth during high water, but It Is extremely shallow during the summer, I;i the central sections of this river and alFo of the Nelson, some stretches are navigable for steamers for many miles. In the event of steamships running into Hudson sea. the rivers I have In- dicated may be used for bringing the produce of the country to the coast tor shipment to Europe or elsewhere. The small harbors at tie mouths of these streams have an i verage depth of only about ten feet at high tide. The mean rise of the spring tides on the west side of Hudson sea U c;cv'..i or twelve feet, and is pretty uniform. but it diminishes somewhat as we go south. At the south end of James bay, when a northerly wind blows at the time of spring tide, the water some- times rises to nearly double the ordin- ui lieight. The greatest spring tides arc at the mouth of Nelson river, where they rise fifteen feet. The tides are low all along the east coaat. In the eastern half of Hudson strait the tides are very high, but towarda the west end they have diminished very much. At Ungava bay, just within the entrance and on the south side, some tides may rise to a height of fifty feet. At Fort Chlmo, twenty miles up the Ungava river. Commander Bolton, R N., found a tide of 38 Vi feet. At Ashe inlet, on Big laland, the average spring tide was accurately ascertained to be 31 feet. The resources of Hudson sea and of the adjacent regions, from which exports may be expected in the future, Include timber, minerals, agricultural produce, fish, fur and oil. These may some day furnish considerable bjilnesa in addition to the great traffic passing through the sea from the regions west of Lake Winnipeg. It is probable that nothing but ex- perience gained after the opening of the Hudson bay route will dispel the bugaboo as to the ice and the supposed Impossible climate. Not only has it been supposed that the strait is closed during the winter, but that the sea it- self freezes across. A little reflection would convince anyone that this is quite impo-sible witii a bjdy of tait water 600 miles wide and a thou- sand miles long, within the latitudes of the British Islands. It is equally Impossible for this to happen THE HtlDSON BAT ROUTE TO EUROPE ! ,1 to a deep channel like the atralt, can- nectlnff thla rreat sea and the Atlan- tic ocean, and having a hlch tide ■wlnirlniT rapidly throuKh It twice eVRry twenty-four hours. The presence of so much open water and the lower al- titude, give Hudson sea and strait a milder winter climate than that of Manitoba or Minnesota. The writer ha» In his pus>ies9lon a record of the climate, ln<:IudlnK sea- sonal and periodic events, for nearly • hundred years at an Inland post on the Albany river. This gives an aver- age of ulx months of open water each year. Another record kept at York Factory for flfty years shows an aver- aye of fully six months of open water In the year. The difference In latitude between York Factory and Churchill harbor la only abmt one hundred milea. As neither Hudson strait or sea Is (tozen over at any time, they might b* navigated for six months or more in the year, but the season of navigation iAiouId only be reckoned ad the period during which vessels could enter a suitable harbor. Much hai been ascertained In the last thirty years, and a great deal had been previously recorded since the Danish captain, John Monck, wintered at Churchill in 1S19-16J0, to show that this harbor has an open season aver- aging four and a half months In the year, or from about the middle of June to the end of October, and there Is no doubt that a powerful ice- break- ing steamer, such as some of those used in Russia, could materially ex- tend the time of open water, both in spring and autumn, and the clear open Eea being Just outsliie could always be utilisied. We need not, therefore, de- spair of navigating these waters on account of the shortmss of the season. The fact that the strait and this great inland sea have been navigated by sailing ships with scarcely any loss for 240 ytars^ for the sake of the small business available, shows what might be done when a great carrying trade is in sight. If railways were built from the nralrie provinces to Hud.son sea, the farmers of these regions would be In as good a position in regard to a seaport as those of the interlake penin- sula of Ontario are in relation to the St. Lawrence. If the average price of wheat throughout the northwest were Increased by ten cents a bushel, ow- ing to such Improved facilities for marketing it in Europe, and if only one-fourth of our 200,000,000 acre« of good wheat land in the northwest, or, say, 60,000,000 acres, were producing this grain at the rate of twenty bush- els an acre, the annual value of this crop alone would be increased by $100,- 000,000 or enough (at a moderate price) to build a new transcontinental rail- way every year. The combined value of all other products would i^niible this amount, and the value of the land It- self would be correspondingly en- hanced. These a()vantages, together with the many others which would re- sult from tlie greatly reduced rates for freight, would seem to Justify the Canadian government and people for at least making every effort to estab- lish thla line of transportation. The city of Winnipeg Is near the southeastern corner of the whole area of the prairie provinces, and yet the distance from It to Liverpool by the Hudson bay route Is 800 mllei less than by the St. Lawrence, while the saving of distance In favor of all other points is greater aa we advance northwestward into the Interior. This may be Illustrated by supposing that two travellers start for Liverpool from some point In that direction, one go- ing by Lake Superior and Montreal, the other via Churchill, the lattor arrives at Churchill as soon as the other reaches Winnipeg. Prom Winni- peg this traveller has yet to go 1.291 miles by lAke Superior to reach Mont- real, where he will still be no nearer to Liverpool than the other is when he reaches Churchill. In other words, the traveller by Churchill saves the whole distance between Winnipeg and Montreal. By way of New York the distance Is, of course, still greater. It will probably be found that some of the products of the northwest can be profitably exported by the Hudson bay route, which would not pay «t all to send by the St. Lawrence. For more than thirty years, the writer has advocated the consideration of this route. In 1878 a paper which he had prepared on the subject was published In the report of the minister of the interior for that year. During the session of 1878-79. the Hon. Thomas Ryan called the attention of the senate to the Importance of this subject and stated his belief that a railway might be advantageously con- structed from Manitoba to Hudson bay. In 1880, parliament granted charters to two companies for building such rail- ways, and In the following year, one of them, the Nelson Valley Railway and Transportation company (of Montreal) appointed Mr. George Bayne aa Its chief engineer and caused a survey to be made from Playgreen lake to Churchill. The company also opened a right-of-way along Its line for many miles. The region between Lake Winnipeg and Churchill, which a railway would require to traverse, has been supposed to be hilly and rocky, but thla Is a mistake. In the wide valley of the Nelson river, there Is much good soil, consisting of a soft clay loam. The railway might be originally con- structed so as to be operated by hydro THB HTTIXOW BAT ROUTS TO BUROPB electric power, which can be furnished on a rreat scale by the falls und chutes of both the Churchill and Nd- son rivers and also from those alons the travelled boat route, via Hill, Steel and Hayes rivers. Once the sea route through Hudson strait has been proved feasible, raiU ways will carry to the coast of Hudson sea, not only the ffraln, cattle and other products of our prairie provinces, but also of some of the northwestern states, such aa Dakota and Minnesota Some kinds of farm produce, which will not bear the cost of transportation to Europe by the longer routes, may be sent by the shorter and dieaper one through Hudson strait Ifr. Tsaae Cowie suggesu that by establlahinv this British route from the vast in- terior of North America. Canada will be virtually giving a preferential trade to Great Britain as compared with other countriea.